Advantages of Phase Angle in Evaluating Physical Vitality Level
American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 8, Issue 3, September 2020, Pages: 56-61
Received: Jul. 4, 2020; Accepted: Jul. 20, 2020; Published: Jul. 28, 2020
Views 231      Downloads 82
Katsunori Fujii, Graduate School of Business Administration and Computer Science, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota-City, Aichi, Japan
Yuki Takeyama, Graduate School of Business Administration and Computer Science, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota-City, Aichi, Japan
Article Tools
Follow on us
Phase angle (PhA) has become a sudden focus of attention in recent years. However, much remains unknown about its relationship with health indicators. If it is an indicator derived through bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), its meaning as a simple health indicator can probably be established. In fact, an indicator of senescence called “vital age” has been proposed. However, this vital age is derived from multivariate factors and so cannot be called a simple indicator. Accordingly, while presenting the term physical vitality as one determinant of health, we defined physical vitality in the sense of conceptualizing the body’s internal control mechanism power that governs the life force. That power regulates health, which is an indicator of the driving force (life force) of human life. In this study we compared phase angle in high school sports club members and general student controls, and showed that the height of the phase angle in club members reflects their physical vitality. An attempt was then made to position phase angle as an indicator of physical vitality. Specifically, we evaluated the phase angles of individual club members by constructing a span evaluation chart with age of phase angle and applying individual club members to that evaluation chart, with general high school students as a control group. With this ability to evaluate the phase angles of individuals, rather than showing that phase angle was high in all club members we were able to grasp the physical vitality levels of health factors possessed by each individual.
Phase Angle, Physical Vitality Level, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), Span Evaluation Chart with Age
To cite this article
Katsunori Fujii, Yuki Takeyama, Advantages of Phase Angle in Evaluating Physical Vitality Level, American Journal of Sports Science. Vol. 8, No. 3, 2020, pp. 56-61. doi: 10.11648/j.ajss.20200803.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
K. Tanaka, Y. Matsuura, F. Nakadomo and E. Nakamura, “Assessment of vital age of Japanese woman by principal component analysis,” Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences, 35, pp. 121-131, 1990.
K. Tanaka, T. Yoshimura, K. Maeda, F. Nakadomo, N. Takeshima, K. Asao, M. Takeda, Y. Kumazaki, H. Watanabe and T. Hiyama, “Validity of CHD Risk Factor-dependent “Vital Age” as an Index of Health and Aging Status,” The Journal of Japan Atherosclerosis Society, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 303-310, 1991.
K. Tanaka, H. Sakai, M. Eto, T. Tsujimoto, S. Jung, R. So, Y. Osuka, M. Nemoto and S. Seino, “Vital age in middle-aged and older men and women with regular ten-pin bowling habits,” Bull. Inst. Health & Sport Sci., Univ. of Tukuba, 35, pp. 73-80, 2012.
A. Hamasaki, Y. Osuka, D. Kubota, Y. Kawate, H. Kobayashi and K. Tanaka, “Combined effects of nutritional supplements and exercise habituation on vital age of middle-aged and older adults,” Japanese Journal of Health Promotion, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 127-136, 2017.
D. Gupta, C. A. Lammersfeld, P. G. Vashi, J. King, S. L. Dahlk, J. F. Grutsch, and C. G. Lis, “Bioelectrical impedance phase angle in clinical practice - implications for prognosis in stage IIIB and IV non-small cell lung cancer,” BMC Cancer, pp. 1-6, 2009.
R. Tsutsumi, J. Oto, K. Fukunaga, M. Chikugo, M. Sebe, M. Iuchi, Y. Tsutsumi, M. Nishimura and H. Sakaue, “Usefulness and limitation of body composition assessment in critical ill patients,” Journal of Japanese Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 31 (3), pp. 803-806, 2016.
Sardinha, L. B. “Physiology of exercise and phase angle: another look at BIA,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, pp. 1323–1327, 2018.
Y. Yamada, B. Buehring, D. Krueger, R. M. Anderson, D. A. Schoeller, and N. Binkley, “Electrical Properties Assessed by Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy as Biomarkers of Age-related Loss of Skeletal Muscle Quantity and Quality,” The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Vol. 72, Issue 9, pp. 1180-1186, 2017.
K. Uemura, M. Yamada, K. Saho and H. Okamoto, “Association of Bio-impedance Phase Angle and Physical Activity Level in Older Adults,” Journal of Physical Therapy Research, 46 (3), pp. 143-151, 2019.
M C. G. Barbosa-Silva, A JD. Barros, J. Wang, S. B. Heymsfield and R. N. Pierson Jr, “Bioelectrical impedance analysis: population reference values for phase angle by age and sex,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, pp. 49-52, 2005.
K. Fujii and K. Hayakawa, “Composition of Change in Phase Angle with Age in Japanese Children,” American Journal of Sports Science, 8 (1), pp. 10-16, 2020.
K. Fujii, “Exploration of The Human Resource Elements of Sports Athletes: Sports Talent and Tall Height,” Japan Society for Production Management, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 1-166, 2020.
A. Matsumoto, “Fundamental Properties of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and the Importance of the ALDH2 Polymorphism,” Japanese Journal of Hygiene, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 55-68, 2016.
Schmidt, S. C., Bosy-Westphal, A., Niessner, C. and Woll, A. “Representative body composition percentiles from bioelectrical impedance analyses among children and adolescents. The MoMo study,” Clin. Nutr, 38 (6), pp. 2712-2720, 2018.
Rodríguez-Rodríguez, F., Cristi-Montero, C., González-Ruíz, K., Correa-Bautista, J. E., and Ramírez-Vélez, R. “Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and muscular fitness in healthy men,” Nutrients, 8 (407), pp. 1-9, 2016.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186